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In this article you will find:
  • Who can be affected by allergy?
  • Some interesting data
  • Medications


Who can be affected by allergy?

The allergy does not depend on the age, sex, race, or socioeconomic level. However, they are most common in children and may reappear after many years.
There is a familial tendency to allergy, although it is not clear what genetic factors exact cause. On this, factors such as hormones, stress, smoke, perfume, or other environmental irritants can aggravate the situation. In general, the symptoms of allergies develop gradually over a period of time.


Some interesting data

  • 1 of every 3 people can suffer from allergy at some time in their life.
  • Seasonal allergic rhinitis , also called hay fever, affects 1 out of every 5 people. Until recently it was unknown, it is very typical of the developed countries.
  • Almost 1 of every 5 school children may suffer from asthma.
  • 1 of each 6 children suffers from skin conditions associated with allergy, especially eczema.
  • 1 out of every 20 people suffers from the rash known as urticaria.
  • Food allergies, especially to peanuts, are increasing at a rapid pace, but are still rare.
  • The allergic reactions caused by stings of wasps and bees, affecting 10 % of the population.


Medications

To treat the allergy, you should determine the allergen the cause and avoid it as much as possible. In addition, there are several groups of drugs that, if used in the correct way, they will relieve the symptoms and even reduce the inflammation continued of the tissues due to chronic allergy. These are:
  • Decongestants:May be used in topical form (aerosol) or by mouth. They act by producing vasoconstriction of the nasal mucosa, which decreases inflammation and relieves congestion, being quick relief and effective. Should not be used for prolonged periods because of the continuous disruption of the blood supply can damage tissue and make symptoms worse.
  • Bronchodilators:bronchodilators Relax the contracted muscle that narrows the airways in asthmatics, and its effect is rapid and effective.
  • Emollients: Soften and moisturize the skin, what are the basic treatment of all skin disorders that produce itchy, and peeling. There are several different types so the doctor must prescribe the appropriate. Are generally preferable to creams that penetrate the skin instead of the ointments and greasy. You need to be careful with the preservatives of the emollients.
  • Antihistamines: They discovered more than 50 years and are the basis of treatment of the allergy. Today there are of the second generation have many advantages over traditional. Decrease the action of histamine released by the mast cells and are effective against the itching and sneezing. Do not penetrate the brain and do not cause drowsiness or much dryness of the mouth.
  • Anti-allergy: Preventing the mast cells and Eosinophils release histamine and other substances that cause inflammation and discomfort.
    Must be applied before coming in contact with the allergen, regularly, and have no side effects. They are ideal for treatments of long duration and efecciones chronic.
  • Glucocorticoids: Are potent and effective drugs anti-allergic and anti-inflammatory drugs, which although do not inhibit the release of histamine and other chemicals from mast cells, reducing inflammation. Act on the same cells and prevent them from producing some important chemical mediators called cytokines, that influence the body's immune system to a very basic level. Are the most effective treatment for allergies, being specifically suitable in the processes of care and those who are long-term and have not responded to other treatments. Can be administered in the form inhalation, intranasal or topical, no side effects and being metabolized quickly by the liver. However, the long-term use and regular creams corticosteroid may cause a decrease and alteration of pigmentation of the skin.
Content developed by pediatrician Peter Barreda.

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