Allergy means “different answer”, and this is not a disease in itself, but rather a feature due to the excess of an antibody called Immunoglobulin E (IgE), which reacts to certain substances that cause the allergic response. If the reaction happens at the level of the mucosa of the nose, there is a allergic rhinitis; if it happens in the eyes, conjunctivitis; bronchial-asthma; in the skin, eczema or hives; and in the digestive system, gastroenteritis, allergic.

Allergic Rhinitis

It consists in the inflammation of the mucous membranes of the nasal passages and sinuses para-nasal. It happens because the nose is the first barrier that has the agency to prevent the entry of the aeroalérgenos.
There are 2 types of rhinitis: seasonal and perennial. The first appears in the seasons of the year there is pollen in the air, as spring and summer, while the second manifests itself throughout the year and responds to the presence of dust mites, as well as fungi, or animal hair.

The symptoms are:

repeated sneezing in a series of 20 or more, itching of nose, runny nose (nasal discharge copious watery) and nasal obstruction, which is very annoying, because the inflamed nasal mucosa, is usually produced headache and sleep disorders, as well as dry throat and tongue when I wake up. You can even be losing your sense of smell and taste Also affects the eyes, generating a constant tearing. Affects15% of the population, being associated in 50 % of cases with asthma, and more frequent and intense in adolescence.

Irritating factors

The symptoms of seasonal allergic rhinitis started when the pollen density in the air reaches 50 grams per cubic metre, but as the inflammation increases, the amount of allergen necessary to cause it is small, as the nose and the eyes are excessively sensitive. Also very much affected by other irritants in the air, as the environmental pollution, tobacco smoke, perfumes, penetrating, detergents and aerosols (even if one is not allergic to these substances, there is sensitivity due to the mucosa of the nose and eyes is highly hypersensitised).


The pollen comes from grasses, weeds, and trees pollinated by the wind is the one that will impact more on rhinitis (not the flower, that is more sticky and transported the insects). In the spring, it appears the pollen of trees, then grasses in summer and, already close to the fall, the fungus aerógenos, including Aspergillus and Alternaria, which are very frequent in the air and can trigger asthma attacks very intense.

The temperature is also a trigger factor, as the heat extends the pollen season, the herbs are in bloom before and leave later. Some trees, such as birch and grasses such as ragweed.
With regard to the climate, the flowers of herbs are open in the early hours of the morning and release the pollen. If the day is hot, lift the pollen in the air, and then, in the evening, when the surface of the earth cools, the convection currents cease and the pollen falls in the form of a cloud. In the rural areas, the maximum concentration is recorded at about 5 or 6 in the afternoon, and in the urban areas, between 7 and 8 in the evening. If the night is quiet, the pollen stays suspended in the air and reached another high level after midnight. In contrast, if it rains, the flowers take longer to open and the pollen is less.

Allergic Conjunctivitis

It is characterized by the redness of the eyes, tearing or intense itching.
It is because the pollen grains enter the eyes, where they react with the mast cells present in the conjunctiva, the membrane that covers the white of the eyes and lining the inside of the eyelid. If you accumulate particles in the inner corner of the eye, tends to rub it continuously to eliminate them, which causes more irritation and itching.


It is episodes more or less repeated of obstruction in the airways, caused by a spasm of the muscles surrounding the bronchi and by the swelling of their walls. It also increases the catarrh of the chest, so that breathing is difficult. The symptoms are: difficulty breathing, coughing and wheezing in the chest. Can occur early in life, in adolescence or adulthood.
It may be due to a hereditary factor, on which factors of the environment, allergenic substances, respiratory viruses, and pollution. In this way the bronchi are sensitive and are blocked when there are weather changes, colds, viral infections, exposure to allergens or violent exercises.

Atopic Dermatitis or eczema.

Is an inflammation itchy skin that can occur on any area of the body, especially on the face and trunk of the newborn and in the extremities of children, in addition to the neck. The adults also presented, and many killing is related to the intake of certain foods, as well as with the allergens from the air.


The skin reacts with itching, inflammation and red bumps, in some areas or all over the body, lasting even days. The produce food, drugs, insect bites, etc

Gastroenteritis Allergic

Due to an intolerance to certain foods (milk, egg, fish and seafood, tomato, nuts, cereals, etc) or dyes in such a reaction occurs allergic in the digestive system. Can manifest as a syndrome with oral (swollen or itchy lips, tongue, and throat). Or it can be triggered in vomiting, nausea, diarrhea, and abdominal pain.

How to prevent allergies

It is essential to steer clear of the allergenic substances. Can I remove the stuffed animals, carpets, or other elements that store the allergens in the room. It is necessary to review the environment to control these substances.
In the case of food, you should avoid those that cause the allergy. In case you are not able to avoid contact with the allergen, a doctor can determine a treatment or medication is appropriate.

Content developed by pediatrician Peter Barreda.

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