This is a condition that affects women of reproductive age, which is presented primarily from puberty until menopause, although the diseases to which it is associated may be manifested throughout life (diabetes, high cholesterol and high blood pressure).
Expert: Sonia Villa, gynaecologist of the Unit of Reproductive Medicine Clínica Monteblanco
This evil is hereditary because the disease often affects several women in the family. However, the pattern of inheritance is not known because it has not been found a gene responsible.
“Has seemingly increased in frequency, the knowledge about the syndrome and its diagnosis, and worsened the style of life of the chileans in general. We eat worse than a few years ago and we are sedentary, so the Polycystic Ovary Syndrome is expressed with greater ease. The biggest problem is that it has also increased the frequency of the diseases to which it is associated (diabetes mellitus, hypertension, and dyslipidemia) and with this, the risk of myocardial infarction”, says the dra. Villa.
Added to that a 40-50% of women with Polycystic Ovary Syndrome develops some type of insulin resistance, which is more frequent even in patients with abdominal obesity. However, the patients thin also have much higher frequency of insulin resistance than the general population.
“If the patient will develop or not a diabetes mellitus in the future will depend on their behaviour in terms of lifestyle and any other loads additional genetic that you may have. For example, multiple family diabetic in the family,” he says, warning that a woman who does aerobic exercise and eat healthy, you have few chances to develop diabetes in their lifetime, and may even normalize your insulin levels.
The same thing-says - occurs with high cholesterol (dyslipidemia), unless the patient has a genetic mutation that makes it produce a higher amount of bad cholesterol, the more likely it is that you do not develop the problem if you have a healthy lifestyle.
Reproductive health risks and metabolic
Women with PCOS often have menstrual irregularities, this is because their ovulations are also irregular, so you ovulate less times in 1 year than a woman who does not have the syndrome.
“To the extent that the greater the irregularity, the greater is the alteration ovulatory. There are women who, even, ovulate 1 time per year or every 2 years, cases that tend to be associated with abdominal obesity important and other metabolic disorders such as insulinorresistencia or even diabetes type 2”, says the dra. Villa.
He adds that, in the case of women who become pregnant spontaneously, they have more risk of miscarriage than the general population, especially those with insulin resistance and elevated levels of LH, a hormone which the brain stimulates the ovarian function. In addition, they have a greater risk of having gestational diabetes.
SOP v/s cancer
The cancer that is most often associated to PCOS is endometrial cancer, since women with this syndrome who present with menstrual irregularity have relative levels of increased estrogen (even more if they are obese, because fat produces more estrogen).
“These estrogens act on the endometrium, the inner lining of the uterus, making it grow in an important way. To not receive progesterone (ahormone that occurs once you ovulate), the endometrium grows to their hearts content until it peels off by hypertrophy, often leaving areas that do not fall and that they might become with time, leading to a cancer of the endometrium.
That is why it is important that women with PCOS are checked with a gynecologist, they want it or not to become pregnant because the syndrome is also associated with other diseases that can be serious and are preventable”.
In the cases associated with insulin resistance important or levels of LH are elevated, it has been seen that pregnant women have a higher risk of miscarriage than the general population.
The dra. Villa recommends that all women with PCOS who want to become pregnant, lose weight, have a healthy, balanced diet and perform aerobic exercise, in order to have a better quality of life.