Desarrollo cerebral del bebé ¿cómo se forman las neuronas?

The most important stage of brain development of the baby occurs during pregnancy, with 30 days of being fertilized, the fetus already has three small bumps that represent the brain and the spinal cord, in addition to in the pregnancy form neurons, specifically in the neural tube of the baby to go spreading subsequently to form the parts of the brain, and finally to specialize in the functions of the same.

The fetus can generate 250.000 neurons per minute, according to Peter Huttenlocher, a neurobiologist at the University of Chicago. During the fourth and seventh month of gestation, we generated the majority of the cells in the brain, they are interconnected with each other during the pregnancy until the time of birth, the baby has more than a trillion connections in the brain.

Myelination is responsible for the brain growth of the fetus during pregnancy, the myelin is a fatty covering insulating that handles the transfer of messages between neurons.

Brain development of the baby at birth

The human being is born with a number of neurons, which are reduced to throughout our lives, however, and in spite of being born with over one hundred million neurons are the mammalian species that is born with the brain more immature, this, according to experts, by the need of the baby to reduce the brain during gestation so that it can pass through the cervix, another of the arguments relate to theories of functional and finally Elizabeth Spelke, of Harvard University, ensures that the babies have a“innate knowledge” that allows you to go to develop their skills psycho-motor throughout its life.

The conditions to which the newborn is subjected, are going to have an immediate effect on the speed and sensitivity of the brain, and as a result, in the qualities and functions of psychic concomitant, if they are unfavourable or limited, shall act in a negative way, hurting their learning and development, often irreversibly.

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Brain development of the baby during the first years of life

It is clear that one is born with certain potentialities and the capabilities to develop into a greater or lesser degree depends upon the stimuli that the child receives, both from adults and from their environment. Of course as adults we learn things, new skills, but we learn by using the neural connections that are already established in the neonatal stage.

If the neurons are “taken” are integrated into the circuit in the brain when they connect with other neurons, on the contrary if they are not used they can even die. The experiences of childhood determine which neurons are used, which circuits are established, the childhood experiences mark definitely their features when it comes to being an adult.

According to the neurobiologist, a pediatrician, Harry Chugani, Wayne State University (April 1996) “early experiences are so powerful that they can completely change the way in which a person develops”. For its part, the neurobióloga development, Carla Shulz, of the University of California, Berkeley, says that “there is an early stage, when experience is not required, and a later, when this if it is indispensable.”

However, once established circuits, the brain's ability to “create” himself to find time limits, called critical periods, these stages are like windows of opportunities that nature opens, and that is slowly closing with each child's birthday.

These new insights suggest then, that with the input right at the right time, almost anything is possible, but they lead us also, to understand that if you wasted the critical period, opportunities are lost in the irreversible history of the development of an individual. It is fundamental to the early stimulation and be aware of how important it is to intervene in the early stages of life.

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